Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control with Robustness against Communication Delay: An Approach in the Space Domain

Yu Zhang, Yu Bai, Meng Wang, Jia Hu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


In this research, an optimal control-based Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) system is proposed. The proposed system is able to enforce a target time gap between platoon members and is formulated in the space domain instead of the time domain which is adopted by most optimal control-based CACC systems in the past. By having this change, its robustness against communication failure is greatly improved and thus minimum safety headway buffer is reduced which leads to better mobility. In addition, third-order vehicle dynamics are modeled into the proposed control in order to improve control precision when implemented in the field. Local stability and string stability are theoretically proven. The proposed system is evaluated by simulation. Results reveal that the proposed CACC system outperforms the state-of-the-art mathcal {H}_infty synthesis-based controller and linear feedback-based controller. The benefit of fuel consumption reduction ranges from 0.35% to 16.11%, while the benefit of CO2 emission ranges from 0.48% to 12.40%. Furthermore, the proposed CACC improves local stability from 11.03% to 25.90%, and string stability by up to 23.82%. The computation speed of the proposed method is 1.26 ms (with prediction horizon as 1.5 s and resolution as 0.1 s) on a regular laptop which indicates the proposed system's potential to be applied in real-time.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9082096
Pages (from-to)5496-5507
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Communication delay
  • cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC)
  • local stability
  • space domain
  • string stability


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