Coordinated tuning of MMC-HVDC interconnection links and PEM electrolyzers for fast frequency support in a multiarea electrical power system

Georgios Giannakopoulos, Arcadio Perilla, Jose Rueda-Torres, Peter Palensky, Francisco Gonzalez-Longatt

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeChapterScientificpeer-review

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Modernization of power systems leads to more power electronic interfaced units in the generation, demand, and transmission. Examples are remotely installed renewable energy sources, loads with constant power, or high voltage direct current (HVDC) corridors. These changes significantly affect the frequency stability margins of the system and thus special control techniques should be applied in the converters of the new installed units so as to shoulder the frequency regulation in case of commonly occurred active power imbalances. The response of such units has to be cooperative in order to avoid problems such as insufficient reactions or overshoots. In this chapter, a coordinative tuning approach of the active power gradient control scheme applied to the controllers of modular multilevel converter (MMC)-based HVDC links and proton exchange membrane electrolyzers with the provision of fast frequency support in a multiarea hybrid HVDC-HVAC power system with responsive demand units is proposed. This tuning uses an optimization approach based on mean variance mapping optimization and is able to minimize the frequency excursions in all interconnected areas participating in the frequency regulation even without communication between the system nodes. This technique has shown great results in terms of quality and convergence rate within a short number of fitness evaluations achieving a set of frequency responses within acceptable limits set by operators even in case of the loss of the largest generating unit in the weakest system area. It has also revealed the applicability of such a method in more complex systems and the necessity for sophisticated tuning methods according to the application needs and the system characteristics.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPower System Frequency Control
Subtitle of host publicationModeling and Advances
Number of pages32
ISBN (Electronic)9780443184260
ISBN (Print)9780443184277
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Active power gradient
  • Fast active power-frequency support
  • Mean variance optimization
  • MMC-HVDC links
  • PEM electrolyzers


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