Copper promotion of chromium-doped iron oxide water-gas shift catalysts under industrially relevant conditions

M. I. Ariëns, L. G.A. van de Water, A. I. Dugulan, E. Brück, E. J.M. Hensen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

Copper promotion of chromium-doped iron oxide prepared via co-precipitation for high-temperature water–gas shift (WGS) catalysis is investigated. Low-temperature Mössbauer spectra demonstrate that copper doping delays hematite (α-Fe2O3) formation in the fresh catalyst, favoring the formation of small crystallites of ferrihydrite (Fe5HO8∙4 H2O). Catalysts are treated under industrial WGS conditions at 360 °C (activity evaluation) and 450 °C (ageing) at 2 and 25 bar. Mössbauer spectra show that chromium is incorporated in octahedral sites of the active magnetite (Fe3O4) phase, resulting in a partially oxidized structure. Copper doping did not affect the bulk magnetite structure of the activated catalyst, which points to the presence of a separate copper phase. Near-ambient pressure XPS shows that copper is in the metallic state. XPS of discharged catalysts evidenced that reaction at elevated pressure resulted in the surface reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+. Copper promotion enhances CO conversion under high-temperature WGS conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)391-403
JournalJournal of Catalysis
Volume405
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Keywords

  • Copper
  • In situ characterization
  • Iron oxide
  • Promotion
  • Water–gas shift reaction

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