Ensembles of trapped atoms interacting with on-chip microwave resonators are considered as promising systems for the realization of quantum memories, novel quantum gates, and interfaces between the microwave and optical regime. Here, we demonstrate coupling of magnetically trapped ultracold Rb ground-state atoms to a coherently driven superconducting coplanar resonator on an integrated atom chip. When the cavity is driven off-resonance from the atomic transition, the microwave field strength in the cavity can be measured through observation of the AC shift of the atomic hyperfine transition frequency. When driving the cavity in resonance with the atoms, we observe Rabi oscillations between hyperfine states, demonstrating coherent control of the atomic states through the cavity field. These observations enable the preparation of coherent atomic superposition states, which are required for the implementation of an atomic quantum memory.