Critical Data Visualization to Enhance Protection Schemes for State Estimation

Vinicius B.Braga Flor, Milton B.Do Coutto Filho, Julio C.Stacchini de Souza, Pedro P. Vergara

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Intelligent electrical power grids, widely referred to as smart grids (SGs), rely on digital technology resources, especially communication and measurement devices, becoming a cyber-physical energy system. Massive data flow between grid elements makes smart grids more vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Power system state estimation (SE) - an essential function of energy management systems - is one of these data integrity attacks' targets. Integrity validation routines can fail when insufficient redundancy levels are reached, and spurious data occur. These levels are associated with critical data, i.e., those whose unavailability makes the grid unobservable. Data redundancy is a metric that gives a precarious indication that SE can run. Alternatively, it is more appropriate to quantify this function strength concerning its results' reliability, which can be achieved by criticality analysis (CA). This paper proposes a novel approach to visualize the results of an extensive CA through representative graphs; they facilitate understanding the usefulness of CA. Critical sets of measurements are generalized, and several metrics are proposed to reveal measuring system vulnerabilities, assisting the design of protection schemes to resist cyber-attacks. Simulations attained on the IEEE-30bus system evince significant improvements in the interpretation/use of CA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1249-1261
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Atmospheric measurements
  • criticality analysis
  • cyber security
  • data redundancy
  • Data visualization
  • Observability
  • Particle measurements
  • Power measurement
  • power system state estimation
  • smart grids
  • State estimation
  • Time measurement
  • Voltage measurement


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