Current-Phase Relation of Ballistic Graphene Josephson Junctions

G. Nanda, J. L. Aguilera-Servin, P. Rakyta, A. Kormányos, Reinhold Kleiner, Dieter Koelle, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, L. M.K. Vandersypen, S. Goswami*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

58 Citations (Scopus)
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The current-phase relation (CPR) of a Josephson junction (JJ) determines how the supercurrent evolves with the superconducting phase difference across the junction. Knowledge of the CPR is essential in order to understand the response of a JJ to various external parameters. Despite the rising interest in ultraclean encapsulated graphene JJs, the CPR of such junctions remains unknown. Here, we use a fully gate-tunable graphene superconducting quantum intereference device (SQUID) to determine the CPR of ballistic graphene JJs. Each of the two JJs in the SQUID is made with graphene encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride. By independently controlling the critical current of the JJs, we can operate the SQUID either in a symmetric or asymmetric configuration. The highly asymmetric SQUID allows us to phase-bias one of the JJs and thereby directly obtain its CPR. The CPR is found to be skewed, deviating significantly from a sinusoidal form. The skewness can be tuned with the gate voltage and oscillates in antiphase with Fabry-Pérot resistance oscillations of the ballistic graphene cavity. We compare our experiments with tight-binding calculations that include realistic graphene-superconductor interfaces and find a good qualitative agreement.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3396-3401
Number of pages6
JournalNano Letters: a journal dedicated to nanoscience and nanotechnology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • current-phase relation
  • Graphene
  • Josephson junctions

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