Cyber Risk Analysis of Combined Data Attacks Against Power System State Estimation

Kaikai Pan, André Teixeira, Milos Cvetkovic, Peter Palensky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

70 Citations (Scopus)
115 Downloads (Pure)


Understanding smart grid cyber attacks is key for developing appropriate protection and recovery measures. Advanced attacks pursue maximized impact at minimized costs and detectability. This paper conducts risk analysis of combined data integrity and availability attacks against the power system state estimation. We compare the combined attacks with pure integrity attacks -false data injection (FDI) attacks. A security index for vulnerability assessment to these two kinds of attacks is proposed and formulated as a mixed integer linear programming problem. We show that such combined attacks can succeed with fewer resources than FDI attacks. The combined attacks with limited knowledge of the system model also expose advantages in keeping stealth against the bad data detection. Finally, the risk of combined attacks to reliable system operation is evaluated using the results from vulnerability assessment and attack impact analysis. The findings in this paper are validated and supported by a detailed case study.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8320388
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Volume10 (2019)
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Bibliographical note

"Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public."


  • Combined integrity and availability attack
  • false data injection
  • Indexes
  • Network topology
  • power system state estimation.
  • Power systems
  • risk analysis
  • Security
  • State estimation
  • Transmission line matrix methods
  • Transmission line measurements


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