Cyclists’ expectations when encountering automated vehicles: results of an international photo-based questionnaire

A. Rodríguez Palmeiro, Sander van der Kint, M.P. Hagenzieker, J.C.F. de Winter

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review

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In the future, cyclists will be sharing the roads with automated and traditional vehicles [1]. Interactions between cyclists and automated vehicles (AVs) may differ from interactions with traditional vehicles, because cyclists may hold incorrect expectations about how AVs will react to their presence, leading to confusing and risky situations. The objective of this study was to assess the (self-reported) behaviour and expectations of cyclists when encountering an AV with different external features as compared to a traditional vehicle. This study builds on a smaller questionnaire conducted by Hagenzieker et al. [2]. 607 participants from 15 countries completed an online questionnaire, in which they were shown 12 photos from a cyclist's point of view. Each photo involved a traditional vehicle or an AV recognisable by a specific feature (door sign or roof sign with the message 'self-driving'). Moreover, three descriptions of the capabilities of AVs (negative, neutral, positive) were provided in a between-subjects design. Participants had to report, for each photo, (1) how sure they were that the car had noticed them, (2) how sure they were that the car would stop, both on a scale from unsure to sure, and (3) what they would do on a scale from 'increase speed' to 'wait'. Personal characteristics (trust in automation and sensation seeking) were also measured. The results showed that participants were more sure to be noticed by an AV with a door sign than by a traditional vehicle. They were also more sure that the car would stop when the vehicle was an AV. The type of AV description showed statistically significant interaction effects with vehicle type. Furthermore, results differed per country group. For example, European respondents were more sure to be noticed by the car than respondents from North America. Finally, trust and sensation seeking scores showed positive correlations with participants' answers to the three questions.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings 7th International Cycling Safety Conference (ICSC 2018)
Number of pages21
Publication statusPublished - 2018
EventICSC 2018: 7th International Cycling Safety Conference - Barcelona, Spain
Duration: 10 Oct 201811 Oct 2018
Conference number: 7


ConferenceICSC 2018: 7th International Cycling Safety Conference
Abbreviated titleICSC 2018

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository 'You share, we take care!' - Taverne project

Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work publ


  • cyclists
  • automated vehicles
  • intentions
  • expectations
  • road safety


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