To increase the contribution of offshore wind energy to the global energy mix in an economically sustainable manner, it is required to reduce the costs associated with the production and operation of offshore wind turbines (OWTs). One of the largest uncertainties and sources of conservatism in design and lifetime prediction for OWTs is the determination of the global damping level of the OWT. Estimation of OWT damping based on field measurement data has hence been subject to considerable research attention and is based on the use of (preferably operational) vibration data obtained from sensors mounted on the structure. As such, it is an output-only problem and can be addressed using state-of-the-art operational modal analysis (OMA) techniques, reviewed in this paper. The evolution of classical time- and frequency-domain OMA techniques has been reviewed; however, the literature shows that the OWT vibration data are often contaminated by rotor speed harmonics of significantly high energy located close to structural modes, which impede classical damping identification. Recent advances in OMA algorithms for known or unknown harmonic frequencies can be used to improve identification in such cases. Further, the transmissibility family of OMA algorithms is purported to be insensitive to harmonics. Based on this review, a classification of OMA algorithms is made according to a set of novel suitability criteria, such that the OMA technique appropriate to the specific OWT vibration measurement setup may be selected. Finally, based on this literature review, it has been identified that the most attractive future path for OWT damping estimation lies in the combination of uncertain non-stationary harmonic frequency measurements with statistical harmonic isolation to enhance classical OMA techniques, orthogonal removal of harmonics from measured vibration signals, and in the robustification of transmissibility-based techniques.