Data-driven preference-based routing and scheduling for activity-based freight transport modelling

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Understanding preferences and behaviours in road freight transport is valuable for planning and analysis. This paper proposes a data-driven vehicle routing and scheduling approach for use as a descriptive tool to study road freight transport activities. The model developed seeks to capture planners’ or drivers’ preferences in order to reproduce observed road freight activities. The model is based on a parametrized time-dependent vehicle routing problem whose parameters can be estimated from a set of observed planned tours. We propose a Bayesian optimization technique for parameter estimation of the model. Empirical results show that the model can fit real-world data accurately and synthesize tour flows close to reality.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104413
Number of pages16
JournalTransportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Activity-based tour modelling
  • Bayesian optimization
  • Data-driven routing and scheduling
  • Freight transport modelling
  • Preference-based vehicle routing


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