Data-Driven Study of LV Distribution Grid Behaviour with Increasing Electric Vehicle Penetration

Yunhe Yu*, David Reihs, Saumitra Wagh, Aditya Shekhar, Daniel Stahleder, Gautham Ram Chandra Mouli, Felix Lehfuss, Pavol Bauer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
118 Downloads (Pure)


In this paper, the impact of Electric Vehicle (EV) uncontrolled charging with four levels of EV penetration in overall 21 real low voltage distribution grids in two seasons are analysed. The employed real grid data is provided by distribution system operators from three European countries: Austria, Germany and the Netherlands. At least six grids in each country were considered and they are categorised into three types, namely rural grids, suburban grids and urban grids. The EV charging data used in this study is based on real measurements or surveys. The seasonal and the weekday-weekend factors are also considered in the EV charging impact research. Three key congestion indicators, the transformer loading, line loading and node voltage as well as several other evaluation indexes are studied. The results reveal that the majority of the simulated grids had no or minor moments of mild overloading while the rest grids had critical issues. Among all the grids, suburban grids are most vulnerable to massive EV integration. Out of the evaluated grids, those who are located in Germany have the highest redundancy for high EV penetration accommodation. Overall, the impact of uncontrolled EV charging depends on the combination of EV charging demand as well as the grid inherent features.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9667519
Pages (from-to)6053-6070
Number of pages18
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Electric vehicle (EV)
  • low voltage distribution grid
  • uncontrolled charging


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