Declarative procedural generation of architecture with semantic architectural profiles

Levi van Aanholt, Rafael Bidarra

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
12 Downloads (Pure)


Procedural content generation (PCG) for architecture is widely used in a variety of digital media, most notably in games. However, such methods are often limited in their expressive range, and require considerable technical knowledge to create non-trivial architectural structures. We present a novel tile-based PCG approach for generating architecture, that proposes the use of architectural profiles, a declarative characterization of architectural typology, within a generic tile solving framework. An architectural profile consists of a set of tiles, representing atomic architectural building blocks, and a set of declarative constraints and rules, specifying which conditions a tile configuration has to satisfy to be valid. These conditions are translated into logic constraints, and used by a tile solver to control tile placement in a bottom-up manner. Eventually, each valid model output by the solver is a representative instance of its architectural profile. We describe an implementation of this approach with Answer Set Programming, using an off-the-shelf constraint solver for model generation. We performed an expressive range analysis, and concluded that our declarative method is quite controllable and can be steered over a broad range of architectural structures, regarding density and repetitiveness. Due to this expressive range and control, our tile-based method is very suitable for the customized development of urban environments for games.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2020 IEEE Conference on Games (CoG)
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-7281-4533-4
ISBN (Print)978-1-7281-4534-1
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Event2020 IEEE Conference on Games, CoG 2020 - Virtual, Osaka, Japan
Duration: 24 Aug 202027 Aug 2020


Conference2020 IEEE Conference on Games, CoG 2020
CityVirtual, Osaka

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project

Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Architecture
  • Expressive Range
  • Procedural Content Generation
  • Tile Solving


Dive into the research topics of 'Declarative procedural generation of architecture with semantic architectural profiles'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this