Degradation of alkali-activated slag subjected to water immersion

Chen Liu, Xuhui Liang, Yun Chen, Zhenming Li*, Guang Ye*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
37 Downloads (Pure)


In this study, the impacts of tap water immersion on the pore solution, phase assemblages, gel chemistry and structure, and pore structure of alkali-activated slag (AAS) pastes were studied. AAS degrades under such condition and the potential mechanisms can be concluded as lower reaction rates, gel decomposition and carbonation. The leaching of Na+ and OH at early stages hinders the reaction of slag, which leads to a slower formation of reaction products. Long-term leaching can result in gel decomposition after 90 d. Coarsened gel pores and capillary pores are both identified in water-immersed samples. Additionally, the leached Ca2+ can react with the dissolved CO2 in tap water to form calcium carbonate. A calcium carbonate layer is observed surrounding the paste while the inner matrix is free of carbonation. The insights provided by this paper contribute to understanding the behaviors and durability of AAS in underwater conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105157
Number of pages16
JournalCement and Concrete Composites
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Alkali-activated slag
  • Carbonation
  • Curing
  • Leaching
  • Water immersion


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