Demeter: A Fast and Energy-Efficient Food Profiler Using Hyperdimensional Computing in Memory

Taha Shahroodi*, Mahdi Zahedi, Can Firtina, Mohammed Alser*, Stephan Wong, Onur Mutlu, Said Hamdioui

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
86 Downloads (Pure)


Food profiling is an essential step in any food monitoring system needed to prevent health risks and potential frauds in the food industry. Significant improvements in sequencing technologies are pushing food profiling to become the main computational bottleneck. State-of-the-art profilers are unfortunately too costly for food profiling. Our goal is to design a food profiler that solves the main limitations of existing profilers, namely (1) working on massive data structures and (2) incurring considerable data movement, for a real-time monitoring system. To this end, we propose Demeter, the first platform-independent framework for food profiling. Demeter overcomes the first limitation through the use of hyperdimensional computing (HDC) and efficiently performs the accurate few-species classification required in food profiling. We overcome the second limitation by the use of an in-memory hardware accelerator for Demeter (named Acc-Demeter) based on memristor devices. Acc-Demeter actualizes several domain-specific optimizations and exploits the inherent characteristics of memristors to improve the overall performance and energy consumption of Acc-Demeter. We compare Demeter’s accuracy with other industrial food profilers using detailed software modeling. We synthesize Acc-Demeter’s required hardware using UMC’s 65nm library by considering an accurate PCM model based on silicon-based prototypes. Our evaluations demonstrate that Acc-Demeter achieves a (1) throughput improvement of 192× and 724× and (2) memory reduction of 36× and 33× compared to Kraken2 and MetaCache (2 state-of-the-art profilers), respectively, on typical food-related databases. Demeter maintains an acceptable profiling accuracy (within 2% of existing tools) and incurs a very low area overhead.
Original languageEnglish
Article number9847238
Pages (from-to)82493-82510
Number of pages18
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Food profiling
  • emerging memories
  • in memory processing
  • analog computing


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