Depth Annotations: Designing Depth of a Single Image for Depth-based Effects

Jingtang Liao, Shuheng Shen, Elmar Eisemann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
36 Downloads (Pure)


We present a novel pipeline to generate a depth map from a single image that can be used as input for a variety of artistic depth-based effects. In such a context, the depth maps do not have to be perfect but are rather designed with respect to a desired result. Consequently, our solution centers around user interaction and relies on a scribble-based depth editing. The annotations can be sparse, as the depth map is generated by a diffusion process, which is guided by image features. We support a variety of controls, such as a non-linear depth mapping, a steering mechanism for the diffusion (e.g., directionality, emphasis, or reduction of the influence of image cues), and besides absolute, we also support relative depth indications. In case that a depth estimate is available from an automatic solution, we illustrate how this information can be integrated in form of a depth palette, that allows the user to transfer depth values via a painting metaphor. We demonstrate a variety of artistic 3D results, including wiggle stereoscopy, artistic abstractions, haze, unsharp masking, and depth of field.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)180-188
Number of pages9
JournalComputers & Graphics
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • Depth map design
  • A single image
  • Depth-based effects


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