Design and Evaluation of a Haptic Aid for Training of the Manual Flare Manoeuvre

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The use of haptic feedback as a tool for skill training has shown benefits for the formation ofmotor-memory and support for certain temporal tasks. Therefore, this research focuses on the development of a haptic aid for supporting the training of the challenging manual flare maneuver in initial pilot training. The haptic aid, which consisted of three “off-target” haptic modes each meant to clarify a typical mistake in flare execution, was designed based on instructor actions during real flight training. The High Roundout (HR) mode was designed to better train flare timing. This haptic mode implemented an increase in pitch-up stick stiffness when still above the desired flare altitude. The Late Roundout (LR) and Ballooning (BA) modes used repeated pulses on the stick – in pitch-up and pitch-down directions, respectively – to alert trainees when they flared too late (or not at all) or when overly large pitch-up inputs that would lead to regaining altitude were given. To test the haptic aid, a quasi-transfer-of-training experiment with 16 novices was performed in a full-motion research simulator. A baseline group and a group receiving haptic feedback were compared and in the haptics group the haptic aid was used during the training phase of the experiment, but disabled in the evaluation phase. A second-stage evaluation, with an untrained landing scenario, was used to verify the generalizability of the skills. The obtained data indicates no improved learning effect regarding flare trajectory. It was found that due to the difficulty of the task, strategies based on linking the cues to desired discrete touchdown performance were formed. The usage of the HR mode, however, resulted in more consistent initiation of the flare which was retained after transfer. The second-stage evaluation also did not show worsening of flare performance, suggesting generalizability of the skills with the haptic aid.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 2018 AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference
Subtitle of host publicationKissimmee, Florida
PublisherAmerican Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc. (AIAA)
Number of pages21
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-62410-528-9
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Event2018 AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference - Kissimmee, United States
Duration: 8 Jan 201812 Jan 2018


Conference2018 AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference
CountryUnited States
Internet address


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