Design and implementation of a steer-by-wire bicycle

George Dialynas, Riender Happee, Arend Schwab

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review

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Since the 1800s, the design of bicycles involves a mechanical linkage between the handlebar and the fork assembly. Herein, we propose an innovation, where the traditional mechanical connection between the handlebar and fork is decoupled and replaced with sensors, servomo-tors and a microcontroller allowing artificial manipulation of the bicycle and steering dynamics. The purpose of our steer-by-wire bicycle is to investigate the influence of handlebar torque feedback on rider control in order to understand rider control on a bicycle. In addition, steer-by-wire bicycles have the potential to be used as stability-enhancing support systems which can improve cycling safety. We demonstrate the design and performance of the steer-by-wire bicycle in computer simulations as well as real-life tests. Preliminary rider tests showed a per-ceived near-to-identical behaviour of the steer-by-wire system to a mechanical connection at steering frequencies below 3 Hz.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings 7th International Cycling Safety Conference (ICSC 2018)
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 2018
EventICSC 2018: 7th International Cycling Safety Conference - Barcelona, Spain
Duration: 10 Oct 201811 Oct 2018
Conference number: 7


ConferenceICSC 2018: 7th International Cycling Safety Conference
Abbreviated titleICSC 2018

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project

Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • bicycle
  • steer-by-wire
  • stability
  • control
  • rider control


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