Designing Cyber-Physical Systems for Runtime Self-Adaptation: Knowing More about What We Miss...

Imre Horváth*, Jože Tavčar

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
74 Downloads (Pure)


Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) represent practical examples of the integration of bits and atoms in human and social contexts and contribute to the integration of neurons and genes into system implementation. Many experts believe that a deeper theoretical understanding of system adaptation will lead to the development of autonomous systems and adjustable autonomy. In terms of the introduction of changes, adaptation can be made during idle time or runtime. In addition, adaptation can be externally initiated and internally initiated. In terms of intentionality indispensable, planned, or self-decided adaptations are distinguished. Adaptations are planned during the design time, runtime, or in both. Internally initiated adaptation is self-adaptation, a form of system operation in which the goals and rules of adaptation are not provided by external controllers. Internally initiated control intertwines the logics of application functions and adaptation functions. This approach is based on programming language features, such as conditional expressions, parameterization, and exceptions in software (SW) systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-26
Number of pages26
JournalJournal of Integrated Design and Process Science
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Accepted Author Manuscript


  • autonomous systems
  • Cyber-physical systems
  • open issues
  • programmed adaptation
  • runtime adaptation
  • self-adaptation
  • self-evolution
  • self-supervision


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