Designing Smart Systems: Reframing Artificial Intelligence for Human-Centered Designers

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Human-centred design (HCD) is a powerful methodology that might play an important role in the development of real-world intelligent systems. However, present conceptualisations of artificial intelligence (AI) tend to emphasise autonomous, algorithmic systems. If humans are not involved in AI system design, what role can HCD play? This paper considers perspectives that reframe the role of AI in smart systems design, with the intention of creating space for human-centred design methodologies. These perspectives naturally give rise to opportunities for HCD by considering human and artificial intelligence in tandem. Informed by cybernetic theory, we define smart systems as "the use of outcome data to inform successful system action". To illustrate the practicality of this view, we share three case studies, each representing a different smart system configuration: artificial intelligence, human intelligence and combined artificial-human intelligence. We describe Battleship Numberline, an educational game with autonomous artificial intelligence. We then describe Zensus, a smart system for health and well-being that leverages human intelligence alone. Finally, we describe FactFlow, educational software that combines artificial and human intelligence. By examining the cybernetic feedback loops observed in these systems, we contribute a practical framework for the use of human-centred design methodology in smart systems design. This framework is intended as both a generative tool for designers and a basis for future research in the field of smart systems.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of TMCE 2020
EditorsImre Horvath, Garrett Keenaghan, Nula Calnan, Maurice Murphy, Adrie Kooijman
Pages143-154
Number of pages13
ISBN (Electronic)978-94-6384-131-3
Publication statusPublished - 2020
EventTMCE 2020 : 13th International Tools and Methods of Competitive Engineering Symposium (due to COVID19 cancelled ) -
Duration: 11 May 202015 May 2020

Conference

ConferenceTMCE 2020 : 13th International Tools and Methods of Competitive Engineering Symposium (due to COVID19 cancelled )
Period11/05/2015/05/20

Keywords

  • Human-Centered Design
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI)
  • Cybernetics
  • Smart Systems
  • System Design

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