Determining a realistic ranking of the most dangerous process equipment of the ammonia production process: A practical approach

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Abstract

OCI Nitrogen seeks to gain knowledge of (leading) indicators regarding the process safety performance of their ammonia production process. The current research determines the most dangerous process equipment by calculating their effects resulting from a loss of containment using DNV GL's Phast™ dispersion model. In this paper, flammable and toxic effects from a release from the main equipment of an ammonia plant have been calculated. Such an encompassing approach, which can be carried out for an entire plant, is innovative and has never been conducted before. By using this model, it has been demonstrated that the effects arising from an event of failure are the largest in process equipment containing pressurized synthesis gas and ‘warm’ liquid ammonia, meaning the ammonia buffer tanks, ammonia product pumps, and the ammonia separator. Most importantly, this document substantiates that it is possible to rank the most hazardous process equipment of the ammonia production process based on an adverse impact on humans using the calculated effect distance as a starting point for a chance of death of at least 95%. The results from the effect calculations can be used for risk mapping of an entire chemical plant or be employed and applied in a layer of protection analysis (LOPA) to establish risk mitigation measures.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104395
JournalJournal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries
Volume70
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Keywords

  • Ammonia
  • Bowtie
  • Effect
  • Indicator
  • Phast™
  • Process safety

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