Developing an energy rating for bifacial photovoltaic modules

Malte Ruben Vogt*, Giorgos Pilis, Miro Zeman, Rudi Santbergen, Olindo Isabella

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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The photovoltaic (PV) module energy rating standard series IEC 61853 does not cover bifacial PV modules. However, the market share of bifacial PV modules has dramatically increased in recent years and is projected to grow. This work demonstrates how Parts 3 and 4 of the IEC 61853 standard could be extended to bifacial modules. First, we develop an irradiance model that uses the data already given in the standard IEC 61853-4 to calculate the irradiance on the rear side of the module. Second, we propose a way to extend the energy yield calculation algorithm IEC 61853-3 to include bifacial modules and make it available to the PV community. This rear irradiance and bifacial energy yield calculation procedure is tested using real outdoor measurements for a nine-month period with a root mean square difference between measured and simulated energy yield of 4.65%. To conclude, we investigate the impact of different climates and normalization on the bifacial module energy rating results.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages12
JournalProgress in Photovoltaics: research and applications
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • bifacial PV module
  • energy rating
  • energy yield
  • IEC61853
  • PV module
  • PV module performance
  • view factor


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