Like in the 2013 version of this paper, it revisits the developments in the governance of public transport in the Netherlands, focussing on bus, tram, metro, and regional train concessions. Most of the concessions are competitively tendered, since the introduction for a legal obligation to tender in 2001. Dutch public transport authorities have since chosen different concession setups and forms of contract remuneration. This variety has become larger, as the three major cities were allowed in 2012 to choose not to tender out their concessions. This paper again explores that variety and describes recent changes at the national and regional levels from 2013 onwards and looks at the developments that were first coming up in 2012. The paper describes key trends and lessons from the Dutch experience based on a nine-year project drawing lessons on competitive tendering with authorities, operators and consultants, and based on interviews with representative of 13 of the 14 public transport authorities. Key trends are dealing with a limited market, austerity measures.
- Competitive tendering
- Public transport