Device-Aware Test for Ion Depletion Defects in RRAMs

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review


Many companies are heavily investing in the commercialization of Resistive Random Access Memories (RRAMs). This calls for a comprehensive understanding of manufacturing defects to develop efficient and high-quality test and diagnosis solutions to push high-volume production. This paper identifies and characterizes a new defect based on silicon measurements; the defect is called Ion Depletion (ID). In our case study, 45% cycles suffered from an intermittent reduction in high resistance state and did not impact low resistance state. The paper shows that the traditional fault modeling based on linear resistors as a defect model is not accurate. To address this challenge, the Device-Aware (DA) defect modeling method is applied; an RRAM model of the defective device is developed and calibrated using measurements to accurately describe the impact of the defect on the electrical behavior of the memory device. Afterward, fault analysis is performed based on the DA defect model, and appropriate fault models are introduced; they show that the ID defect may sensitize undefined state faults. Finally, dedicated test and diagnosis solutions for the ID defect are proposed.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 2023 IEEE International Test Conference (ITC)
EditorsCristina Ceballos
Place of PublicationPiscataway
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)979-8-3503-4325-0
ISBN (Print)979-8-3503-4359-5
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Event2023 IEEE International Test Conference (ITC) - Anaheim, United States
Duration: 7 Oct 202315 Oct 2023

Publication series

NameProceedings - International Test Conference
ISSN (Print)1089-3539


Conference2023 IEEE International Test Conference (ITC)
Country/TerritoryUnited States

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository 'You share, we take care!' - Taverne project
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • RRAM test
  • linear resistors
  • device-aware defect model
  • fault modeling
  • Design-for-Testability (DfT)


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