In recent years, a lot of works have been published that use parameter retrieval using orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams. Most make use of the OAM of different Laguerre-Gauss modes. However, those specific optical beams are paraxial beams and this limits the regime in which they can be used. In this paper, we report on the first results on retrieving the geometric parameters of a diffraction grating by analysing the corresponding complex-valued (i.e. amplitude and phase) Helmholtz Natural Modes (HNM) spectra containing both the azimuthal (i.e. n) and radial (i.e. m) indices. HNMs are a set of orthogonal, non-paraxial beams with finite energy carrying OAM. We use the coherent Fourier scatterometry (CFS) setup to calculate the field scattered from the diffraction grating. The amplitude and phase contributions of each HNM are then obtained by numerically calculating the overlap integral of the scattered field with the different modes. We show results on the sensitivity of the HNMs to several grating parameters.
- coherent Fourier scatterometry
- optical metrology
- structured beam