BACKGROUND: The safe and accurate placement of pedicle screws remains a critical step in open and minimally invasive spine surgery, emphasizing the need for intraoperative guidance techniques. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is an optical sensing technology that may provide intraoperative guidance in pedicle screw placement. PURPOSE: The study presents the first in vivo minimally invasive procedure using DRS sensing at the tip of a Jamshidi needle with an integrated optical K-wire. We investigate the effect of tissue perfusion and probe-handling conditions on the reliability of fat fraction measurements for breach detection in vivo. METHODS: A Jamshidi needle with an integrated fiber-optic K-wire was gradually inserted into the vertebrae under intraoperative image guidance. The fiber-optic K-wire consisted of two optical fibers with a fiber-to-fiber distance of 1.024 mm. DRS spectra in the wavelength range of 450 to 1600 nm were acquired at several positions along the path inside the vertebrae. Probe-handling conditions were varied by changing the amount of pressure exerted on the probe within the vertebrae. Continuous spectra were recorded as the probe was placed in the center of the vertebral body while the porcine specimen was sacrificed via a lethal injection. RESULTS: A typical insertion of the fiber-optic K-wire showed a drop in fat fraction during an anterior breach as the probe transitioned from cancellous to cortical bone. Fat fraction measurements were found to be similar irrespective of the amount of pressure exerted on the probe (p = 0.65). The 95% confidence interval of fat fraction determination was found in the narrow range of 1.5-3.6% under various probe-handling conditions. The fat fraction measurements remained stable during 70 min of decreased blood flow after the animal was sacrificed. DISCUSSIONS: These findings indicate that changes in tissue perfusion and probe-handling conditions have a relatively low measureable effect on the DRS signal quality and thereby on the determination of fat fraction as a breach detection signal. CONCLUSIONS: Fat fraction quantification for intraoperative pedicle screw breach detection is reliable, irrespective of changes in tissue perfusion and probe-handling conditions.
- Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy
- In vivo
- Spinal screw placement
- OA-Fund TU Delft