Digital proctoring in higher education: a systematic literature review

Shengnan Han*, Shahrokh Nikou, Workneh Yilma Ayele

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Purpose: To improve the academic integrity of online examinations, digital proctoring systems have recently been implemented in higher education institutions (HEIs). The paper aims to understand how digital proctoring has been practised in higher education (HE) and proposes future research directions for studying digital proctoring in HE. Design/methodology/approach: A systematic literature review was conducted. The PRISMA procedure was adapted for the literature search. The topics were identified by topic modelling techniques from 154 relevant publications in seven databases. Findings: Seven widely discussed topics in literature were identified, including solutions for detecting cheating and student authentication, challenges/issues of uptakes and students' performance in different proctoring environments. Research limitations/implications: This paper provides insights for academics, policymakers, practitioners and students to understand the implementation of digital proctoring in academia, its adoption by HEIs, impacts on students' and educators' performance and the rapid increase in its use for digital exams in HEIs, with particular emphasis on the impacts of the systems on digitalising examinations in HE. Originality/value: This review paper has systematically and critically described the state-of-the-art literature on digital proctoring in HE and provides useful insights and implications for future research on digital proctoring, and how academic integrity in online examinations can be enhanced, along with digitalising HE.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)265-285
Number of pages21
JournalInternational Journal of Educational Management
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Digital proctoring
  • Digitalisation of higher education
  • Literature review
  • Topic modelling


Dive into the research topics of 'Digital proctoring in higher education: a systematic literature review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this