Direct Load Control Decision Model for Aggregated EV Charging Points

Pedro Sánchez-Martín*, Guillermo Sánchez, German Morales-España

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

78 Citations (Scopus)


This paper details a decision model to implement direct load control (DLC) on battery charging processes at electric vehicle charging points located at parking areas. The programming model combines optimally three types of energy management decisions: grid-to-vehicle charges, vehicle-to-grid discharges, and novel vehicle-to-vehicle energy exchanges. The objective function maximizes the net energy supplied to batteries minimizing simultaneously the global energy cost. A 50-plug-in vehicle park case is analyzed for three possible mobility patterns: household, commercial and mixed. Outputs from the DLC model are compared with the ones using a dumb charging policy from the service quality and economic points of view. Finally, a sensitivity analysis has been done to evaluate the economic impact of the Depth of Discharge condition to preserve battery lifecycle of electric vehicles.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6145671
Pages (from-to)1577-1584
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • Charging points
  • direct load control (DLC)
  • electric vehicle batteries
  • grid to vehicle
  • vehicle to grid
  • vehicle to vehicle


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