In this chapter, the research dedicated to moderate or intense low-oxygen dilution (MILD) combustion (also called flameless combustion) that relied on direct numerical simulations (DNS) is summarized. In particular, the various DNS carried out are detailed and three different configurations are considered: the autoigniting mixing layer between fuel and hot and diluted oxidizer, the premixed MILD combustion resulting from internal exhaust gas recirculation, and the nonpremixed MILD combustion with internal exhaust gas recirculation. Focus is placed here on different aspects of MILD combustion. First, works that relate to the onset of MILD combustion and the apparition of the initial ignition kernels are discussed, in particular, a summary is provided on the findings that show the particular physics of MILD combustion, where the initial ignition kernels are mostly related to the distribution of mixture fraction and recirculating radicals. Subsequently, the identified physical mechanisms involved in the development of those ignition kernels are summarized. In particular, focus is placed on the balance between ignition and deflagrative mechanisms. Using different analysis methods, the works summarized here show that, while there is a coexistence between ignition and deflagration, ignition is the main contributor to the overall heat release. Finally, the implications of these findings on the modeling of MILD combustion are discussed through various studies that assessed a priori different modeling frameworks for MILD combustion. In those, models that capture this essential and dominant ignition behavior of MILD combustion were shown to be more accurate.
|Title of host publication||Fundamentals of Low Emission Flameless Combustion and Its Applications|
|Number of pages||40|
|Publication status||Published - 2022|
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- Chemical explosive mode analysis
- Combustion modeling
- Direct numerical simulation
- MILD combustion