γ-M23C6 carbide often forms at grain boundaries in creep-resistant steels and plays a crucial role in creep resistance by blocking microstructural changes at elevated temperatures. Given that the dislocations and stacking faults (SFs) in carbides may affect their stability, the observation of SF formation in γ-M23C6 using atomic-scale microscopy has implications for Cr-rich creep-resistant steels. Our analysis of SF energies (SFEs) derived from density functional theory calculations reveals that the SFEs are high, which suggests that the SF is not induced by external shear stress deformation but by lattice misfit between conjoined subgrains nucleated from the same austenite grain.
- Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)
- Stacking fault
- γ-MC carbide