Distributed power hardware-in-The-loop testing using a grid-forming converter as power interface

Steffen Vogel, Ha Thi Nguyen, Marija Stevic, Tue Vissing Jensen, Kai Heussen, Vetrivel Subramaniam Rajkumar, Antonello Monti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
51 Downloads (Pure)


This paper presents an approach to extend the capabilities of smart grid laboratories through the concept of Power Hardware-in-The-Loop (PHiL) testing by re-purposing existing grid-forming converters. A simple and cost-effective power interface, paired with a remotely located Digital Real-Time Simulator (DRTS), facilitates Geographically Distributed Power Hardware Loop (GD-PHiL) in a quasi-static operating regime. In this study, a DRTS simulator was interfaced via the public internet with a grid-forming ship-To-shore converter located in a smart-grid testing laboratory, approximately 40 km away from the simulator. A case study based on the IEEE 13-bus distribution network, an on-load-Tap-changer (OLTC) controller and a controllable load in the laboratory demonstrated the feasibility of such a setup. A simple compensation method applicable to this multi-rate setup is proposed and evaluated. Experimental results indicate that this compensation method significantly enhances the voltage response, whereas the conservation of energy at the coupling point still poses a challenge. Findings also show that, due to inherent limitations of the converter s Modbus interface, a separate measurement setup is preferable. This can help achieve higher measurement fidelity, while simultaneously increasing the loop rate of the PHiL setup.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3770
Pages (from-to)1-24
Number of pages24
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Energy residual
  • Energy-based metric
  • Geographically distributed real-Time simulation
  • Grid-forming converter
  • Hardware-in-The-loop
  • Quasi-stationary
  • Remote power hardware-in-The-Loop
  • Simulation fidelity


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