Distribution of passenger costs in fixed versus flexible station-based feeder services

David Leffler, Wilco Burghout, Oded Cats, Erik Jenelius

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
29 Downloads (Pure)


This paper presents a comparative analysis of demand-responsive and fixed-schedule, fixed route operations for a simplified station-based feeder to mass transit scenario. Traffic dynamics, demand-responsive fleet coordination, and the behaviour of individual transit users are represented using a public transit simulation framework. Each operational strategy is simulated for varying levels of demand and two fleet compositions with respect to vehicle capacities and fleet size are compared. The services are evaluated based on resulting passenger waiting times, in-vehicles times and additional waiting time if one is denied boarding a fully occupied vehicle. Results indicate that dividing planned service capacity into larger fleets of smaller vehicles can provide a higher level-of-service to passengers. On an aggregate level, utilizing a fixed operational policy results in shorter and more reliable waiting times for levels of demand where there is slack in service capacity. In scenarios where planned service capacity is sometimes exceeded, the on-demand service provides a more even spatial distribution of passenger waiting times, relative to a fixed service.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)179-186
Number of pages8
JournalTransportation Research Procedia
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Event22nd EURO Working Group on Transportation Meeting, EWGT 2019 - Barcelona, Spain
Duration: 18 Sep 201920 Sep 2019


  • automated vehicles
  • demand-responsive feeder
  • simulation
  • spatial equity


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