Drivers and barriers in adopting Mobility as a Service (MaaS) – A latent class cluster analysis of attitudes

María J. Alonso-González*, Sascha Hoogendoorn-Lanser, Niels van Oort, Oded Cats, Serge Hoogendoorn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

79 Citations (Scopus)
52 Downloads (Pure)


Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is expected to significantly change mobility patterns, yet it is still not clear who will embrace this new mobility paradigm and how MaaS will impact passengers’ transportation. In the paper, we identify factors relevant for MaaS adoption based on a survey comprised of over thousand respondents in the Netherlands. We find five clusters in relation to individuals’ inclinations to adopt MaaS in the context of urban mobility. We characterize each of the clusters, allowing for the examining of different customer segments regarding MaaS. The cluster with the highest inclination for future MaaS adoption is also the largest cluster (representing one third of respondents). Individuals in this cluster have multimodal weekly mobility patterns. On the contrary, current unimodal car users are the least likely to adopt MaaS. We identify high (mobility) ownership need and low technology adoption (present in three of the five clusters) as the main barriers that can hinder MaaS adoption. Policies that directly address these two barriers can stimulate MaaS adoption.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)378-401
Number of pages24
JournalTransportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Adoption barriers
  • Attitudes
  • Latent class cluster analysis
  • Mobility as a Service (MaaS)
  • Pooled on-demand services


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