Dynamic façades – An exploratory campaign to assess occupant multi-domain environmental satisfaction and façade interaction

Alessandra Luna-Navarro*, Gary R. Hunt, Mauro Overend

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
50 Downloads (Pure)


Building occupants interact frequently with façades. These interactions simultaneously affect several domains of the indoor environment (visual, thermal, air quality and acoustic) and occupant perception, as well as the energy performance of the façades. Yet this multi-domain relationship between façade and occupant is not well understood. This gap in knowledge is particularly problematic for dynamic façades, where automated controls endeavour to improve the energy efficiency and reduce occupant dissatisfaction. In particular, it is often unclear whether an integrated multi-domain approach is strictly required when evaluating occupant satisfaction with automated or manual dynamic façades. This research provides a “proof-of-principle” that such an approach is required. This conclusion was drawn after performing. small exploratory campaign conducted in a test chamber designed specifically for occupant-façade interaction in which several human volunteers were exposed to alternative façade typologies (a single-skin façade and a closed cavity façade) and different control strategies (manual control and automated control). As expected, the results show that the effects on the indoor environmental quality, occupant satisfaction and discomfort vary in space and time, and between the façade typologies investigated. It was also found that occupant satisfaction was not only affected by whether a certain thermal or visual condition had been reached, but also on how it had been achieved, e.g. whether the actuation was perceived as disruptive by the occupants. Finally, the results show that occupant satisfaction and the level of interaction in one domain may be affected by satisfaction in other domains.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108703
Number of pages20
JournalBuilding and Environment
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository 'You share, we take care!' - Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Adaptive façades
  • Dynamic façade
  • Human comfort
  • Multi-domain environmental satisfaction
  • Occupant interaction
  • Occupant-centred automation


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