Dynamic optimization of ship energy efficiency considering time-varying environmental factors

Kai Wang, Xinping Yan*, Yupeng Yuan, Xiaoli Jiang, Xiao Lin, Rudy R. Negenborn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

65 Citations (Scopus)
56 Downloads (Pure)


Nowadays, optimization of ship energy efficiency attracts increasing attention in order to meet the requirement for energy conservation and emission reduction. Ship operation energy efficiency is significantly influenced by environmental factors such as wind speed and direction, water speed and depth. Owing to inherent time-variety and uncertainty associated with these various factors, it is very difficult to determine optimal sailing speeds accurately for different legs of the whole route using traditional static optimization methods, especially when the weather conditions change frequently over the length of a ship route. Therefore, in this paper, a novel dynamic optimization method adopting the model predictive control (MPC) strategy is proposed to optimize ship energy efficiency accounting for these time-varying environmental factors. Firstly, the dynamic optimization model of ship energy efficiency considering time-varying environmental factors and the nonlinear system model of ship energy efficiency are established. On this basis, the control algorithm and controller for the dynamic optimization of ship energy efficiency (DOSEE) are designed. Finally, a case study is carried out to demonstrate the validity of this optimization method. The results indicate that the optimal sailing speeds at different time steps could be determined through the dynamic optimization method. This method can improve ship energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions effectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)685-698
JournalTransportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository 'You share, we take care!' - Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Dynamic optimization
  • Energy conservation and emission reduction
  • Model predictive control
  • Ship energy efficiency
  • Speed optimization


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