Dynamics of direct X-ray detection processes in high-Z Bi2O3 nanoparticles-loaded PFO polymer-based diodes

A. Ciavatti, T. Cramer, M. Carroli, L. Basiricò, R. Fuhrer, D. M. De Leeuw, B. Fraboni

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Semiconducting polymer based X-ray detectors doped with high-Z nanoparticles hold the promise to combine mechanical flexibility and large-area processing with a high X-ray stopping power and sensitivity. Currently, a lack of understanding of how nanoparticle doping impacts the detector dynamics impedes the optimization of such detectors. Here, we study direct X-ray radiation detectors based on the semiconducting polymer poly(9,9-dioctyfluorene) blended with Bismuth(III)oxide (Bi2O3) nanoparticles (NPs). Pure polymer diodes show a high mobility of 1.3 × 10-5 cm2/V s, a low leakage current of 200 nA/cm2 at -80 V, and a high rectifying factor up to 3 × 105 that allow us to compare the X-ray response of a polymer detector in charge-injection conditions (forward bias) and in charge-collection conditions (reverse bias), together with the impact of NP-loading in the two operation regimes. When operated in reverse bias, the detectors reach the state of the art sensitivity of 24 μC/Gy cm2, providing a fast photoresponse. In forward operation, a slower detection dynamics but improved sensitivity (up to 450 ± 150 nC/Gy) due to conductive gain is observed. High-Z NP doping increases the X-ray absorption, but higher NP loadings lead to a strong reduction of charge-carrier injection and transport due to a strong impact on the semiconductor morphology. Finally, the time response of optimized detectors showed a cut-off frequency up to 200 Hz. Taking advantage of such a fast dynamic response, we demonstrate an X-ray based velocity tracking system.

Original languageEnglish
Article number183301
Number of pages5
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 30 Oct 2017


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