Herein, we study the influences of the laser-exposed volume and the irradiation position on the nonphotochemical laser-induced nucleation (NPLIN) of supersaturated potassium chloride solutions in water. The effect of the exposed volume on the NPLIN probability was studied by exposing distinct milliliter-scale volumes of aqueous potassium chloride solutions stored in vials at two different supersaturations (1.034 and 1.050) and laser intensities (10 and 23 MW/cm2). Higher NPLIN probabilities were observed with increasing laser-exposed volume as well as with increasing supersaturation and laser intensity. The measured NPLIN probabilities at different exposed volumes are questioned in the context of the dielectric polarization mechanism and classical nucleation theory. No significant change in the NPLIN probability was observed when samples were irradiated at the bottom, top, or middle of the vial. However, a significant increase in the nucleation probability was observed upon irradiation through the solution meniscus. We discuss these results in terms of mechanisms proposed for NPLIN.
This work was funded through the Open Technology Programme by the Netherlands Science Foundation (NWO), Project 16714 (LightX). The authors thank the members of the LightX user committee for their productive discussions: Dr. Jörn Gebauer (Bayer AG), Dr. Jana Sonnenschein (Bayer AG), Dr. Bart Zwijnenburg (Nobian B.V.), Dr. Rob Geertman (Janssen Pharmaceutica), Dr. Andreas Sieber (Lonza Group), and Ir. John Nijenhuis (TU Delft). The opinions expressed in this document reflect only the authors’ views. The European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.