Effect of porous Cu addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of SnBi-xAg solder joints

Yang Liu, Boqiao Ren, Min Zhou, Yuxiong Xue, Xianghua Zeng, Fenglian Sun, Xuejun Fan, Guoqi Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


The effects of porous copper (P-Cu) on the microstructure, hardness, and shear strength of SnBi, SnBi-0.4Ag, and SnBi-1Ag solder joints were investigated in this paper. The experimental results show that P-Cu frames distribute in the solder bulks and form triangular areas. The addition of P-Cu leads to the microstructural refinement in the enclosed areas by the P-Cu frames in the solder bulks. The average hardness here is increased due to the fine grain strengthening mechanism. The SnBi-1Ag@P-Cu solder bulk shows smaller Bi-rich grains but larger β-Sn dendrites than the other two P-Cu-enhanced solder bulks. Porous Cu exists as a frame structure in the solder joints, which hinders the initiation and propagation of cracks and has a positive effect on the improvement of joint strength. Compared to the SnBi and SnBiAg solder joints, the shear strength of the P-Cu-enhanced solder joints is increased by 15%. The average shear strength of the SnBi-0.4Ag@P-Cu solder joint is 79.34 MPa, which is the highest among all the solder joints investigated in this study.

Original languageEnglish
Article number735
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalApplied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Hardness
  • Microstructure
  • Porous Cu
  • Shear behavior
  • SnBi


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