For a single batch material, time intervals and nozzle standoff distances between two subsequent layers are two critical printing parameters that influence the mechanical performance of the printed concrete. This paper presents an experimental and numerical study to investigate the impacts of these printing parameters on the interlayer bond strength of the 3D printed limestone and calcined clay-based cementitious materials. All samples were manufactured by a lab-scale 3D printer equipped with a hybrid back- and down-flow nozzle (rectangular opening). The uniaxial tensile test was employed to quantify the interface adhesion of printed specimens. Moreover, the greyscale value image of microstructure, as well as the air void content and distribution of the printed specimens were acquired by X-ray computed tomography and characterized by image analysis. The experimental results showed that extending the time interval between construction of two layers could decrease the bond strength, whereas only increasing the nozzle standoff distance exhibited limited effects on that. The weak bond strength could be attributed to the high local porosity at the interface of the specimen. Additionally, numerical simulations of the uniaxial tensile test were conducted using a 2D lattice fracture model, which can predict the bond strength of printed specimens for different void content in the interface layer.
- 3D Concrete Printing
- Air Void Content and Distribution
- Interlayer Bond Strength
- Lattice Fracture Model