Effect of silicon, manganese and heating rate on the ferrite recrystallization kinetics

Vitesh Shah, Monika Krugla*, Sven Erik Offerman, Jilt Sietsma, David Neal Hanlon

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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This study presents the effects of silicon (Si) and manganese (Mn) concentration and of heating rate on the ferrite recrystallization kinetics in seven model alloys with different Si and Mn concentrations, which are of relevance for the development of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). The recrystallization kinetics were studied with in-situ 2D X-ray Diffraction (2D-XRD) and ex-situ microstructure observations using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The experimentally observed differences in the recrystallization start temperature (Ts), dependent on the Si and Mn concentrations and the heating rate, can be described by combining the non-isothermal JMAK-model with a modified version of Cahn's solute drag model. The modified Cahn model takes into account - in an approximate manner - that the interaction energy of the solute atoms with the grain boundary depends on the Si and Mn concentrations in the boundary and the Wagner interaction parameters. The collective contribution of the Si and Mn atoms to the increase in the Ts with respect to the reference alloy (without Si and with very little Mn) is higher than would be expected from the simple addition of the effects of the Si and Mn concentrations alone. This means that the interaction between Si and Mn atoms leads to an additional increase in Ts, i.e. a coupled solute drag effect. For the later stages of recrystallization, we have studied the change in the number density and the growth rates of the recrystallizing grains using SEM. The observations show non-random nucleation, early impingement of the grains in the normal-direction and non-constant growth rates of recrystallizing grains.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1312-1323
JournalISIJ International
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Coupled solute drag
  • Ferrite recrystallization
  • Manganese
  • Recrystallization start temperature
  • Silicon

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