Surface roughness elements are often used to force laminar to turbulent transition in aerodynamic and aeroacoustic wind-tunnel experiments. The statistical features and spectral content of the pressure fluctuations in the resulting turbulent boundary layer at the trailing edge can affect far-field noise. To elucidate this dependence, boundary-layer transition induced by randomly distributed roughness elements and a zigzag strip of the same height over a NACA 0012 airfoil is investigated experimentally. The effects of roughness geometry on the near-field flow topology, transition location, and far-field noise are addressed in the common experimental setting for the first time. For a fixed roughness height, distributed roughness elements are less effective in forcing transition than the zigzag strip at low freestream velocity (u∞<20 m/s). As u∞ increases, the transition front for the distributed roughness elements moves closer to the roughness location, reaching the same or even further upstream locations compared to the transition onset in the presence of the zigzag strip. The far-field noise depends on the transition location. For u∞≤20 m/s, a higher noise level is measured for the distributed roughness elements with respect to the zigzag strip. In contrast, for u∞>20 m/s, the earlier onset of transition with the distributed surface roughness leads to a lower noise level than that with the zigzag strip. The data confirm that an adequate characterization of the boundary-layer transition is necessary when measuring the far-field noise during wind-tunnel experiments.
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||AIAA Journal: devoted to aerospace research and development|
|Publication status||Published - 2021|
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