Effects of the Rough Sea Surface on the Signature of a Single Air Gun

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3 Citations (Scopus)


The calculation of air gun source signatures gives insight into applications such as air gun array design, deghosting and the impact of sound on marine life. Single air gun source signatures were calculated from the numerical solution of a set of differential equations based on different branches of physics. Some characteristic parameters of air guns were obtained from the Svein Vaage broadband air gun data set (SVBAD) measurements to calibrate the model. The comparison between measured and modeled air gun signals helps to investigate the accuracy of air gun source models. The modeled air gun signatures compared well with measurements from the SVBAD for the case of a calm sea surface of sea state 2 or less. The source ghost signal modeled for a rough sea surface showed amplitude and phase changes, affecting the ghost notches, which may explain discrepancies between the SVBAD measurements and modeled air gun signals at frequencies above 150 Hz.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)575-581
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Air gun source model
  • Atmospheric modeling
  • Mathematical model
  • Ocean temperature
  • rough sea
  • Rough surfaces
  • scattering
  • Sea surface
  • Surface impedance
  • Surface roughness


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