Electrical Properties Tomography: A Methodological Review

R.L. Leijsen, W.M. Brink-van Caspel, Cornelis At Van Den Berg, A. Webb, R.F. Remis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
27 Downloads (Pure)


Electrical properties tomography (EPT) is an imaging method that uses a magnetic resonance (MR) system to non-invasively determine the spatial distribution of the conductivity and permittivity of the imaged object. This manuscript starts by providing clear definitions about the data required for, and acquired in, EPT, followed by comprehensively formulating the physical equations underlying a large number of analytical EPT techniques. This thorough mathematical overview of EPT harmonizes several EPT techniques in a single type of formulation and gives insight into how they act on the data and what their data requirements are. Furthermore, the review describes machine learning-based algorithms. Matlab code of several differential and iterative integral methods is available upon request.
Original languageEnglish
Article number176
Number of pages37
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Conductivity
  • Electrical properties tomography (EPT)
  • Inversion
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Permittivity


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