Electrification of a bus system with fast charging stations: Impact of battery degradation on design decisions

Sh Sharif Azadeh, J. Vester, M. Y. Maknoon*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
70 Downloads (Pure)


In this paper, we evaluate the cost of the electrification of an existing bus network. We propose a family of bi-objective mathematical models to demonstrate the trade-off between strategic (i.e., battery sizing and the locations of charging stations) and operational decisions (i.e., battery degradation). The proposed mathematical models investigate different charging policies and measure their impacts on overall cost. Battery degradation is estimated by a tailored and linearized semi-empirical approach and is explicitly incorporated in the proposed mixed-integer linear models. The impact of different charging policies on reducing the overall costs is evaluated for a bus network in Rotterdam. The results show that allowing for flexibility in the loss of energy levels at each bus cycle results in savings up to 17% in battery aging.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103807
Number of pages21
JournalTransportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Battery degradation
  • Charging policies
  • Electrification of bus systems
  • Mixed-integer linear problem
  • Network design

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