Electrochemical behavior of cocaine cutting agents at the polarized liquid-liquid interface

Paulina Borgul, Karolina Sobczak, Konrad Rudnicki, Piotr Glazer, Patrycja Pawlak, Anna Trynda, Sławomira Skrzypek, Lukasz Poltorak*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
68 Downloads (Pure)


In this work, we have used cyclic voltammetry to investigate the interfacial behavior of cocaine cutting agents at the electrified liquid-liquid interface formed between a solution of the water and 1,2-dichloroethane phases. Among 27 chemical species used to adulterate cocaine street samples, only 8 were detectable in the available potential window. These include procaine, lidocaine, levamisole, hydroxyzine, caffeine, phenylethylamine, diltiazem, and diphenhydramine. From the calibration curves obtained using voltammetric data, we have extracted the electroanalytical parameters such as detection sensitivities, limits of detection, and limits of quantifications. Also, for each electrochemically active drug, we have calculated diffusion coefficients and plotted the ion partition and concentration fraction diagrams. All this information is discussed in a view of the cocaine sensors development focused on its detection from demanding matrix defined by the street samples composition.

Original languageEnglish
Article number139553
Number of pages11
JournalElectrochimica Acta
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Adulterants
  • Cocaine sensor
  • Illicit drugs
  • Ion partition diagrams
  • Voltammetry


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