Emergent U(1) symmetry in non-particle-conserving one-dimensional models

Zakaria Jouini, Natalia Chepiga, Loïc Herviou, Frédéric Mila

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The properties of stable Luttinger liquid phases in models with a nonconserved number of particles are investigated. We study the Luttinger liquid phases in one-dimensional models of hard-core boson and spinless fermion chains where particles can be created and annihilated three by three on adjacent sites. We provide an intuitive and systematic method based on the flow equation approach, which accounts for additional terms in the correlations generated by the Z3-symmetric interactions. We find that despite the emergence of U(1) symmetry under renormalization, the observables are still affected by its breaking in the bare Hamiltonian. In particular, the standard bosonization mapping becomes insufficient to capture the full behavior of correlation functions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number205145
Number of pages14
JournalPhysical Review B
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 2023


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