Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and a significant contributor of health care costs. Noninvasive imaging plays an essential role in the management of patients with cardiovascular disease. Cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) can noninvasively assess heart and vascular abnormalities, including biventricular structure/function, blood hemodynamics, myocardial tissue composition, microstructure, perfusion, metabolism, coronary microvascular function, and aortic distensibility/stiffness. Its ability to characterize myocardial tissue composition is unique among alternative imaging modalities in cardiovascular disease. Significant growth in cardiac MR utilization, particularly in Europe in the last decade, has laid the necessary clinical groundwork to position cardiac MR as an important imaging modality in the workup of patients with cardiovascular disease. Although lack of availability, limited training, physician hesitation, and reimbursement issues have hampered widespread clinical adoption of cardiac MR in the United States, growing clinical evidence will ultimately overcome these challenges. Advances in cardiac MR techniques, particularly faster image acquisition, quantitative myocardial tissue characterization, and image analysis have been critical to its growth. In this review article, we discuss recent advances in established and emerging cardiac MR techniques that are expected to strengthen its capability in managing patients with cardiovascular disease. Level of Evidence: 5. Technical Efficacy: Stage 1.
Bibliographical noteAccepted Author Manuscript
- cardiac magnetic resonance
- deep learning
- low-field imaging
- machine learning
- myocardial tissue characterization