Endocytosis of nutrient transporters in fungi: The ART of connecting signaling and trafficking

Cláudia Barata-Antunes, Rosana Alves, Gabriel Talaia, Margarida Casal, Hernâni Gerós, Robert Mans*, Sandra Paiva

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)
54 Downloads (Pure)


Plasma membrane transporters play pivotal roles in the import of nutrients, including sugars, amino acids, nucleobases, carboxylic acids, and metal ions, that surround fungal cells. The selective removal of these transporters by endocytosis is one of the most important regulatory mechanisms that ensures a rapid adaptation of cells to the changing environment (e.g., nutrient fluctuations or different stresses). At the heart of this mechanism lies a network of proteins that includes the arrestin‐related trafficking adaptors (ARTs) which link the ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 to nutrient transporters and endocytic factors. Transporter conformational changes, as well as dynamic interactions between its cytosolic termini/loops and with lipids of the plasma membrane, are also critical during the endocytic process. Here, we review the current knowledge and recent findings on the molecular mechanisms involved in nutrient transporter endocytosis, both in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in some species of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus. We elaborate on the physiological importance of tightly regulated endocytosis for cellular fitness under dynamic conditions found in nature and highlight how further understanding and engineering of this process is essential to maximize titer, rate and yield (TRY)-values of engineered cell factories in industrial biotechnological processes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1713-1737
JournalComputational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Arrestins
  • Aspergilli
  • Biotechnology
  • Cell factories
  • Conformational changes
  • Endocytic signals
  • Endocytosis
  • Fungi
  • MCCs/eisosomes
  • Metabolism
  • Nutrient transporters
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  • Signaling pathways
  • Structure-function
  • Ubiquitylation


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