Energising the E-factor: The E+-factor

Florian Tieves, Fabio Tonin, Elena Fernández-Fueyo, John M. Robbins, Bettina Bommarius, Andreas S. Bommarius, Miguel Alcalde, Frank Hollmann*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

49 Citations (Scopus)
158 Downloads (Pure)


The E-factor has become an important measure for the environmental impact of (bio)chemical reactions. However, summing up the obvious wastes generated in the laboratory neglects energy-related wastes (mostly greenhouse gases) which are generated elsewhere. To estimate these wastes, we propose to extend the E-factor by an energy-term (E+-factor). At the example of a lab-scale enzyme fermentation, we demonstrate that the E+-factor can constitute a multiple of the classical E-factor and therefore must not be neglected striving for a holistic estimation of the environmental impact.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1311-1314
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Biocatalysis
  • E-factor
  • Green chemistry
  • Oxyfunctionalisation chemistry
  • Peroxygenases


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