In this chapter the most significant characteristics and functionalities of an energy management system (EMS) for microgrids are introduced. For this, the definitions of hierarchical control layers are considered. First, the main concepts and modules of the hierarchical control structure of a generalized EMS are presented. Then, energy management function is represented as an optimization problem, described as the simultaneous solution of both, a unit commitment problem and an economic load dispatch problem. An extension of the energy management problem is also formulated based on an optimal power flow. Second, the advantages and disadvantages of using either a centralized or a decentralized EMS approach are discussed. Finally, since the energy management problem is represented as an optimization problem, the most common methodologies and solution algorithms used in the specialized literature are discussed, including metaheuristics, mixedinteger linear approximations, and nonlinear approaches, as well as software tools for implementing models and simulations.
- Demand side management
- Energy management