Energy repartition in the nonequilibrium steady state

Peng Yan, Gerrit E.W. Bauer, Huaiwu Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
44 Downloads (Pure)


The concept of temperature in nonequilibrium thermodynamics is an outstanding theoretical issue. We propose an energy repartition principle that leads to a spectral (mode-dependent) temperature in steady-state nonequilibrium systems. The general concepts are illustrated by analytic solutions of the classical Heisenberg spin chain connected to Langevin heat reservoirs with arbitrary temperature profiles. Gradients of external magnetic fields are shown to localize spin waves in a Wannier-Zeemann fashion, while magnon interactions renormalize the spectral temperature. Our generic results are applicable to other thermodynamic systems such as Newtonian liquids, elastic solids, and Josephson junctions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number024417
Number of pages17
JournalPhysical Review B (Condensed Matter and Materials Physics)
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 17 Jan 2017


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